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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-April 2022
Volume 30 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-32

Online since Friday, May 20, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology Editorial Comments p. 1
Bolutife A Olusanya
DOI:10.4103/njo.njo_6_22  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Refractive Profile in Duane Retraction Syndrome Highly accessed article p. 2
Sowmya Raveendra Murthy, Kanika Gupta
DOI:10.4103/njo.njo_5_21  
Aim: To study the refractive error profile of patients with Duane retraction syndrome (DRS). Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with DRS between January 2015 and December 2018 at a tertiary eye center. All case files of patients diagnosed with DRS were retrieved and analyzed. Following parameters were collected from the records: demographic data, laterality of involvement, type of DRS, type of refractive error, presence of anisometropia, and presence of amblyopia, if any. Type of refractive error was correlated with type of DRS. Results: Seventy-seven eyes of 74 patients were included with age range of 2 to 65 years. There were 42 female patients and 32 male patients. Exotropic DRS with unilateral presentation was the commonest pattern. Left eye was predominantly involved in unilateral DRS. Hyperopia (58.1%) was the most common refractive error in both esotropic and exotropic DRS. Anisometropia was present in 16% cases, with anisoastigmatism being the most common refractive error in them. Amblyopia was reported in only three cases with anisometropia being the cause. Abnormal head posture was reported in most of the patients (81%). Upshoots and downshoots were common in exotropic DRS. Conclusion: Hyperopia was the most common refractive error in both esotropic and exotropic DRS. Amblyopia was reported in a few cases and was due to anisometropia. This underscores the importance of proper evaluation of refractive error in patients with DRS.
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Relationship between Anthropometric Parameters, Neck Circumference, and Intraocular Pressure among Normal Adults in Ile-Ife Highly accessed article p. 6
Adetola Oluwadamilola Feyijimi, Bernice Oluwakemi Adegbehingbe, Adenike O Adeoye, Chidi Ihemedu
DOI:10.4103/njo.njo_17_21  
Aim: To determine the relationship between anthropometric parameters, neck circumference (NC), and intraocular pressure (IOP) among the adult population in Ile-Ife, Nigeria Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 450 randomly selected nonglaucoma subjects from the students and staff population of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Ethical clearance for the study was obtained from the institution and written informed consent was obtained from subjects. The demographic profile of subjects was documented and measurements of anthropometric parameters, NC, and IOP were carried out. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS 23.0. The bivariate linear regression model was used for correlation analysis and the level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Four hundred and fifty subjects were examined comprising 194 males (43.1%) and 256 females (56.9%). The mean age was 34.26 ± 11.78 years. The mean values for height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and NC were 1.67 ± 0.09 m, 70.7 ± 14 kg, 25.49 ± 4.91 kg/m2, and 34.65 ± 2.79 cm, respectively. The weight and height were significantly higher in males than in females but BMI was higher in females. The mean IOP for all the subjects was 14.40 ± 3.26 mmHg. Weight, BMI, and IOP significantly increased with age, and mean IOP also significantly increased with increasing height (P = 0.045), weight (P = 0.005), NC (P = 0.0005), and BMI (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Increased weight, BMI, and NC were found to be significantly associated with IOP elevation, which is a risk factor for glaucoma
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Comparison of the Sanders–Retzlaff–Kraff II and Barrett Universal II Intraocular Lens Formula in Eyes with Normal Axial Lengths p. 12
Angela S.D Amita, Angelo Doniho, Devina Permatasari, Kristian D Kusnadi, Andrew A Halim
DOI:10.4103/njo.njo_46_21  
Introduction: This study evaluates the difference between two intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulas in postphacoemulsification surgery patients with the axial length (AXL) ranging from 22.00 to 24.50 mm. Aim: This study aimed to know the accuracy and the relevancy of Sanders–Retzlaff–Kraff (SRK) II IOL formula compared with Barret Universal II IOL formula to minimize the refractive prediction error (RPE) Value in eyes with normal AXL. Methods: This retrospective study reviews the medical records of 35 patients who had cataract surgery. The differences of RPE value in SRK II and Barrett Universal II IOL formula were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: There is no statistically significant difference in the RPE value between the two IOL formulas. Each formula has the standard deviation of RPE value ±0.50 D in 62.8% of patients and ±1.00 D in 94.3% to 97.1% of patients. Conclusion: The RPE distribution range in both formulas in eyes with normal AXL was within the benchmark standard of The United Kingdom National Health Service. SRK II formula can be preferred in a high backlog country.
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Pattern of Ophthalmic Lesions in a Tertiary Health Institution in South-South, Nigeria p. 16
Kenneth O Inaku, Affiong Ibanga, Ayodele J Omotoso, Ima-Abasi Bassey, Sunday N Okonkwo, Mbang Kooffreh-Ada, Godwin A Ebughe, Peter G Ada
DOI:10.4103/njo.njo_37_21  
Objective: Ophthalmic tumors are tumors that occur in the eyes and other related structures. These lesions involve a wide range of pathologic conditions ranging from benign to malignant lesions and are common in Africa. Although there have been a number of published reviews on this subject, none was carried out in this environment. This study seeks to determine the pattern, prevalence, and types of ophthalmic tumors reported in Calabar, southern Nigeria. Methods: Patient’s hospital records were retrieved from the Department of Pathology, University of Calabar teaching hospital within the period of 2008 to 2016 and analyzed to obtain required information. Results: A total of 70 ophthalmic tumors were diagnosed during the study period of which 50.0% were malignant. Males were slightly more affected than females (ratio 1.3:1) accounting for about 55.7%. The top three ophthalmic malignant tumors were squamous cell carcinoma, retinoblastoma, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma contributing 21.4%, 17.1%, and 5.7%, respectively, of all eye tumors. Dermoid cyst (8.5%) was the most common benign ophthalmic tumor reported. In all, three cancer incidence peaks were observed at 0 to 10 (42.9%), 21 to 40 (43.2%), and 41 to 50 (14.3%) age groups. Retinoblastoma was the most common cancer in children and squamous cell carcinoma was commoner among adults. Conclusion: The prevalence of malignant and benign eye tumors was the same in this review. A delay in diagnosis was a characteristic feature. Early presentation to eye-care facilities for appropriate and early intervention is highly recommended to prevent potential loss of eyesight and even death.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Resolution of Posttraumatic Brown Syndrome in a Child Following Treatment with Oral Steroid: A Case Report p. 21
Sowmya Raveendra Murthy, Prerna Tripathi
DOI:10.4103/njo.njo_27_21  
Aim: To report a case of acquired Brown syndrome in a child following trauma and its response to oral steroids. Case Report: A 4-year-old child was brought to us with complaints of adopting abnormal head posture following a fall while playing and injuring his head. On examination, he had features of the acquired Brown syndrome of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits was normal. A course of oral steroids was given and the symptoms resolved after a month of treatment. Conclusion: Acute onset of abnormal head posture following trauma warrants keen evaluation of ocular movements and cover tests in all gazes to ascertain the cause. Acquired Brown syndrome should be considered in children following head trauma and it responds well to oral steroids.
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Acute Acquired Comitant Esotropia after Amniotic Membrane Transplantation in a Case of Vernal Keratoconjuctivitis p. 24
Sowmya Raveendra Murthy, Niveditha Nikhil, Khushboo Gupta
DOI:10.4103/njo.njo_4_21  
Acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) is an uncommon form of strabismus in older children and adults. It is characterized by acute onset concomitant esotropia and diplopia. It can occur as a result of monocular occlusion, vision loss, physical stress, or high myopia. We describe a child with chronic vernal keratoconjunctivitis with nonhealing shield ulcer who presented with AACE due to disruption of fusion following amniotic membrane transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, AACE following amniotic membrane transplantation has not been reported till date.
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A Tale of Two Syndromes: Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in a Nigerian Female p. 28
Yewande O Babalola, Tunji S Oluleye, Oluwole I Majekodunmi, Modupe A Ijaduola
DOI:10.4103/njo.njo_18_21  
A 54-year-old female Nigerian presented with a 1-week history of sudden deterioration of vision in both eyes. There was no antecedent history of ocular trauma, floaters, nor flashes of light. However, she gave a history of a febrile illness associated with headaches and malaise 2 weeks prior to onset of ocular symptoms. She is a known retroviral-positive patient on treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy for the past 5 years but is not a known hypertensive nor diabetic. At presentation, the best corrected visual acuity was hand movement in both eyes. Anterior segment examination of both eyes revealed fine keratic precipitates on the corneal endothelium with flare and inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber and grade 1 nuclear sclerosis. Dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy of both eyes revealed pink disks with blurred margins total exudative retinal detachments. An assessment of Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was made. Bilateral exudative detachment resolved with improvement of her best corrected visual acuity to 6/9 in both eyes after systemic treatment with steroids.
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