Year : 2021  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 113-125

Risk Factors for Age-related Macular Degeneration in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

1 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
2 MedricVision, 9 Kudirat Salami Street, Agungi, Lekk, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Osayem J Otabor-Olubor
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City-310101
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njo.njo_7_20

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Objectives: Various risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) have been postulated and identified. This study seeks to identify risk factors for cases with ARMD in our environment and proffer appropriate recommendations on ways to reduce the risk of its development and progression. Methods: This was a case–control hospital-based study conducted in the out-patient eye clinic of the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. The cases were patients attending the eye clinic, with a diagnosis of ARMD and the controls were patients without a diagnosis of ARMD for a period of 7 months, all 50 years and above. Chi-squared and Fisher exact analyses were used to explore variables. Logistic regression (unadjusted and adjusted) were used to determine possible risk factors and their interactions. Results: A total of 240 respondents made of 120 cases and 120 controls participated in the study. A higher proportion of the respondents in both study groups was in the age group 60 to 69 years; cases 48 (40.0%) and controls 49 (40.8%) years. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) for risk factors for ARMD includes male sex [OR: 3.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92–10.23], those who resided in urban areas (OR: 3.08; 95% CI: 0.13–73.14), those who were employed (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 0.46–4.54), alcohol use (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 0.21–16.61), regular consumption of fast foods (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.00–2355.87), obesity (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.46–4.16), use of nontinted glasses (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.14–1.35), and diabetes (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 0.30–5.63). Conclusion: In this study, increasing age, the female gender, increasing body weight, and myopia were positively associated with ARMD. Tertiary education, weekly consumption of fruits, and the use of tinted spectacles were protective against ARMD. Identifying these risk factors in our environment will be a major step in planning health awareness programs geared toward management of progression of ARMD.

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