Year : 2018  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 111-117

Macular changes in diabetic patients using optical coherence tomography and fundus photography

Department of Ophthalmology, UP University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Reena Sharma
House No. 199, Civil Lines, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njo.njo_1_18

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Aim: To identify and compare macular changes in patients with diabetic mellitus (DM) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus photography (FP). Setting and Design: This prospective comparative study was conducted at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: We examined 200 eyes of 107 diabetic patients with slit-lamp biomicroscopy, color FP using TOPCON fundus camera, and cirrus OCT. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. The clinical diabetic retinopathy (DR) and OCT findings were compared. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 20, using Pearson’s Chi-square test, Student’s t-test, and analysis of variance. Results: Mean age of patients was 53.59 ± 10.8 years, with 68.2% males. Only six (5.5%) patients had type 1 DM. Mean FBS, PPBS, and HbA1c were 137.08 ± 34.4 mg/dL, 218.13 ± 70.5 mg/dL, and 6.65% ± 2.8%, respectively. The mean HbA1c of patients with OCT changes (7.08% ± 2.9%) was higher than those with normal OCT (5.52 ± 2.18) (P value < 0.001, t statistic—0.001). The retinopathy was found in 55 eyes (27.50%) on OCT and 74 (37%) eyes on FP. Of 126 eyes with normal fundus, 75 eyes (59.52%) had OCT changes. The mean central foveal, parafoveal, and perifoveal macular thickness in OCT were 260.95 ± 65.16, 322.78 ± 47.96, 281.73 ± 36.77 μm, respectively. The eyes with retinopathy had increased foveal (P < 0.001) and peripheral (parafoveal and perifoveal) thicknesses (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The OCT showed changes in the absence of clinical retinopathy in 59.2% eyes (P value < 0.001), indicating a role in detecting subclinical retinopathy. The eyes with clinical retinopathy however had a thicker fovea, implicating a more severe disease and retinopathy. Higher HbA1c values were associated with higher chances of OCT changes.

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